Routing and Transmit Design in Computer Networks Terms 

A router is defined as a network connected with two or more computers to share resources. These networks can be linked through cables, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. 

Network topology is the arrangement of a network, how the nodes are connected to each other, and their communication methods with other nodes in the same network. 

Network optimization problems include routing restrictions, traffic load, overall reliability, and cost. The electrical industry is focused on network development and optimization. 

Routing and network topologies topics are refreshed in PE review courses for electrical engineers

PE Electrical Review Course
Network Protocol Used for Data Transmission 

Protocol is a set of rules that manages the communication between computers on a network. These rules provide the guidelines that regulate the access, allowed physical topologies, speed of data transfer, and types of cabling used for transmission. The most common protocols are: 

Ethernet: Carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method is used in Ethernet protocol. This protocol listens to the network cable before sending any transmission through the network to avoid collision. When a computer knows that the network is free and there is no traffic on the network, data will then be transmitted. Otherwise, each system waits until the cables are clear before transmitting data. 

Local Talk: This protocol was developed by Apple and is considered carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Local Talk adapters and a twisted pair cable is used to connect a series of computers through the serial port. 

Token Ring: In the mid-1980s, IBM developed this protocol. This protocol uses the token-passing method, where computers are connected through network so that the tokens travel around the network from one computer to another in a ring. If a computer does not have the information to transmit, it simply passes the token. If the computer needs to transmit the data, it attaches the data to the token. 

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM): ATM is a universal networking technology that handles audio, video, and data transmission. It creates a virtual channel (VC) and utilizes the channel for communication and then terminates it. This can be implemented by one or more ATM switches; it places an entry for the VC in its forwarding table. 

Advantages of Computer Networking 

  • When using a network, people can communicate efficiently with a group of people through instant messaging, video conferencing, social media, chat rooms, etc. 
  • It is easy to share files, data, and information. This can be beneficial for large organizations to maintain their data in an organized manner and easily sort based on preference. 
  • The files and programs on a network can be protected using passwords. The protected files cannot be accessed by any unauthorized users. 

Challenges of Networking 

  • Networks may sometimes crash or breakdown due to an issue with the server. When this kind of issue becomes frequent in networks, it could cause a loss of funds as well as a decline in productivity. It is necessary to maintain the network properly to prevent disastrous breakdowns. 
  • It is very expensive to build a network in large scale organizations. Cables and other hardware costs are very costly to buy and replace. 
  • Security threats are a major issue in large networks. Careful measures must be taken to facilitate the required security. 

Professional electrical and computer engineers may have studied topics related to computer networks, communications, computer systems, and software development during their undergraduate studies. PE exam review courses recap these topics once again for engineers who are preparing for their professional engineer exam certification.